Section 432 Meaning of “associated company” and “control”
(1) For the purposes of this Part, a company shall be treated as another company’s associated company at a particular time if, at that time or at any time within one year previously, one of the 2 companies has control of the other company, or both companies are under the control of the same person or persons.
(2) For the purposes of this Part, a person shall be taken to have control of a company if such person exercises, or is able to exercise or is entitled to acquire, control, whether direct or indirect, over the company’s affairs, and in particular, but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, if such person possesses or is entitled to acquire-
(a) the greater part of the share capital or issued share capital of the company or of the voting power in the company,
(b) such part of the issued share capital of the company as would, if the whole of the income of the company were distributed among the participators (without regard to any rights which such person or any other person has as a loan creditor), entitle such person to receive the greater part of the amount so distributed, or
(c) such rights as would, in the event of the winding up of the company or in any other circumstances, entitle such person to receive the greater part of the assets of the company which would then be available for distribution among the participators.
(3) Where 2 or more persons together satisfy any of the conditions of subsection (2), they shall be taken to have control of the company.
(4) For the purposes of subsection (2), a person shall be treated as entitled to acquire anything which such person is entitled to acquire at a future date or will at a future date be entitled to acquire.
(5) For the purposes of subsections (2) and (3), there shall be attributed to any person any rights or powers of a nominee for such person, that is, any rights or powers which another person possesses on such person’s behalf or may be required to exercise on such person’s direction or behalf.
(6) For the purposes of subsections (2) and (3), there may also be attributed to any person all the rights and powers of-
(a) any company of which such person has, or such person and associates of such person have, control,
(b) any 2 or more companies of which such person has, or such person and associates of such person have, control,
(c) any associate of such person, or
(d) any 2 or more associates of such person,
including the rights and powers attributed to a company or associate under subsection (5), but excluding those attributed to an associate under this subsection, and such attributions shall be made under this subsection as will result in the company being treated as under the control of 5 or fewer participators if it can be so treated.