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Section 195 Exemption of certain earnings of writers, composers and artists

(1) In this section—

“EEA Agreement” means the Agreement on the European Economic Area signed at Oporto on 2 May 1992, as adjusted by all subsequent amendments to that Agreement;

“EEA state” means a state which is a contracting party to the EEA Agreement;

“work” means an original and creative work which is within one of the following categories:

(a) a book or other writing;

(b) a play;

(c) a musical composition;

(d) a painting or other like picture;

(e) a sculpture.

Amendments

Subs (1) substituted by Finance Act 2014 section 5(a) from 23 December 2014.

(2)(a) This section shall apply to an individual-

[(i) who is—

(I) resident in one or more Member States, or in another EEA state, and not resident elsewhere, or

(II) ordinarily resident and domiciled in one or more Member States, or in another EEA state, and not resident elsewhere, and]1

(ii)(I) who is determined by the Revenue Commissioners, after consideration of any evidence in relation to the matter which the individual submits to them and after such consultation (if any) as may seem to them to be necessary with such person or body of persons as in their opinion may be of assistance to them, to have written, composed or executed, as the case may be, either solely or jointly with another individual, a work or works generally recognised as having cultural or artistic merit, or

(II) who has written, composed or executed, as the case may be, either solely or jointly with another individual, a particular work which the Revenue Commissioners, after consideration of the work and of any evidence in relation to the matter which the individual submits to them and after such consultation (if any) as may seem to them to be necessary with such person or body of persons as in their opinion may be of assistance to them, determine to be a work having cultural or artistic merit.

(b) The Revenue Commissioners shall not make a determination under this subsection unless-

(i) the individual concerned duly makes a claim to the Revenue Commissioners for the determination, being (where the determination is sought under paragraph (a)(ii)(II)) a claim made after the publication, production or sale, as the case may be, of the work in relation to which the determination is sought, and

(ii) the individual complies with any request to him or her under subsection (4).

Amendments

1 Substituted by Finance Act 2014 section 5(b) from 23 December 2014.

(3)(a) An individual to whom this section applies and who duly makes a claim to the Revenue Commissioners in that behalf shall, [subject to paragraphs (aa) and (b)]1, be entitled to have the profits or gains arising to him or her from the publication, production or sale, as the case may be, of a work or works in relation to which the Revenue Commissioners have made a determination under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii), or of a work of the individual in the same category as that work, and which apart from this section would be included in an assessment made on him or her under Case II of Schedule D, disregarded for the purposes of the Income Tax Acts.

[(aa) The amount of the profits or gains for a year of assessment which an individual shall be entitled to have disregarded for the purposes of the Income Tax Acts by virtue of paragraph (a) [shall not exceed €50,000 for the year of assessment 2015]2 and each subsequent year of assessment.]3

(b) The exemption authorised by this section shall not apply for any year of assessment before the year of assessment in which the individual concerned makes a claim under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii) in respect of which the Revenue Commissioners make a determination referred to in clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii), as the case may be.

(c) The relief provided by this section may be given by repayment or otherwise.

Amendments

1 Substituted by Finance Act 2011 section 17(a) from 1 January 2011.

2 Substituted by Finance Act 2014 section 5(c) from 23 December 2014.

3 Para (aa) inserted by Finance Act 2011 section 17(b) from 1 January 2011.

(4)(a) Where an individual makes a claim to which subsection (2)(a)(ii)(I) relates, the Revenue Commissioners may serve on the individual a notice or notices in writing requesting the individual to furnish to them within such period as may be specified in the notice or notices such information, books, documents or other evidence as may appear to them to be necessary for the purposes of a determination under subsection (2)(a)(ii)(I).

(b) Where an individual makes a claim to which subsection (2)(a)(ii)(II) relates, the individual shall-

(i) in the case of a book or other writing or a play or musical composition, if the Revenue Commissioners so request, furnish to them 3 copies, and

(ii) in the case of a painting or other like picture or a sculpture, if the Revenue Commissioners so request, provide, or arrange for the provision of, such facilities as the Revenue Commissioners may consider necessary for the purposes of a determination under subsection (2)(a)(ii)(II) (including any requisite permissions or consents of the person who owns or possesses the painting, picture or sculpture).

(5) The Revenue Commissioners may serve on an individual who makes a claim under subsection (3) a notice or notices in writing requiring the individual to make available within such time as may be specified in the notice all such books, accounts and documents in the individual’s possession or power as may be requested, being books, accounts and documents relating to the publication, production or sale, as the case may be, of the work in respect of the profits or gains of which exemption is claimed.

(6)(a) In this subsection, “relevant period” means, as respects a claim in relation to a work or works or a particular work, the period of 6 months commencing on the date on which a claim is first made in respect of that work or those works or the particular work, as the case may be.

(b) Where-

(i) an individual-

(I) has made due claim (in this subsection referred to as a “claim”) to the Revenue Commissioners for a determination under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii) in relation to a work or works or a particular work, as the case may be, that the individual has written, composed or executed, as the case may be, solely or jointly with another individual, and

(II) as respects the claim, has complied with any request made to the individual under subsection (4) or (5) in the relevant period,

and

(ii) the Revenue Commissioners fail to make a determination under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii) in relation to the claim in the relevant period,

the individual may, [appeal to the Appeal Commissioners, in accordance with section 949I, within the period of 30 days after the end of the relevant period]1 on the grounds that—

(A) the work or works is or are generally recognised as having cultural or artistic merit, or

(B) the particular work has cultural or artistic merit,

as the case may be.

Amendments

1 Substituted by Finance (Tax Appeals) Act 2015 section 35(7)(b)(i) with effect from 21 March 2016.

Amendments

Subs (7) deleted by Finance (Tax Appeals) Act 2015 section 35(7)(b)(ii) with effect from 21 March 2016.

(8)(a) On the hearing of an appeal made under subsection (6), the Appeal Commissioners may-

(i) after consideration of-

(I) any evidence in relation to the matter submitted to them by or on behalf or the individual concerned and by or on behalf of the Revenue Commissioners, and

(II) in relation to a work or works or a particular work, the work or works or the particular work,

and

(ii) after such consultation (if any) as may seem to them to be necessary with such person or body of persons as in their opinion may be of assistance to them,

determine that the individual concerned has written, composed or executed, as the case may be, either solely or jointly with another individual-

(A) a work or works generally recognised as having cultural or artistic merit, or

(B) a particular work which has cultural or artistic merit,

and, where the Appeal Commissioners so determine, the individual shall be entitled to relief under subsection (3)(a) as if the determination had been made by the Revenue Commissioners under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii), as the case may be.

1

Amendments

1 Para (b) deleted by Finance (Tax Appeals) Act 2015 section 35(7)(b)(iii) with effect from 21 March 2016.

Amendments

Subs (9) deleted by Finance (Tax Appeals) Act 2015 section 35(7)(b)(iv) with effect from 21 March 2016.

(10) For the purposes of determining the amount of the profits or gains to be disregarded under this section for the purposes of the Income Tax Acts, the Revenue Commissioners may make such apportionment of receipts and expenses as may be necessary.

(11) Notwithstanding any exemption provided by this section, the provisions of the Income Tax Acts regarding the making by the individual of a return of his or her total income shall apply as if the exemption had not been authorised.

(12)(a) An Comhairle Ealaíon and the Minister for Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands shall, with the consent of the Minister for Finance, draw up guidelines for determining for the purposes of this section whether a work within a category specified in subsection (1) is an original and creative work and whether it has, or is generally recognised as having, cultural or artistic merit.

(b) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (a), a guideline under that paragraph may-

(i) consist of a specification of types or kinds of works that are not original and creative or that have not, or are not generally recognised as having, cultural or artistic merit, including a specification of works that are published, produced or sold for a specified purpose, and

(ii) specify criteria by reference to which the questions whether works are original or creative and whether they have, or are generally recognised as having, cultural or artistic merit are to be determined.

(13)(a) Where a claim for a determination under subsection (2) is made to the Revenue Commissioners, the Revenue Commissioners shall not determine that the work concerned is original and creative or has, or is generally recognised as having, cultural or artistic merit unless it complies with the guidelines under subsection (12) for the time being in force.

(b) Paragraph (a) shall, with any necessary modifications, apply to-

(i) a determination by the Appeal Commissioners under subsection (8) on an appeal to them under subsection (6) in relation to a claim mentioned in paragraph (a), and

[(ii) a determination by the High Court under section 949AR.]1

Amendments

1 Subpara (b)(ii) substituted by Finance (Tax Appeals) Act 2015 section 35(7)(b)(v) with effect from 21 March 2016.

(14) Where a determination has been or is made under clause (I) or (II) of subsection (2)(a)(ii) in relation to a work or works of a person, subsection (3)(a) shall not apply to any other work of that person that is in the same category as such work or works and is or was first published, produced or sold on or after the 3rd day of May, 1994, unless that other work is one that complies with the guidelines under subsection (12) for the time being in force and would qualify to be determined by the Revenue Commissioners as an original or creative work and as having, or being generally recognised as having, cultural or artistic merit.

(15) On application to the Revenue Commissioners in that behalf by any person, the Revenue Commissioners shall supply the person free of charge with a copy of any guidelines under subsection (12) for the time being in force.

(16)(a) The Revenue Commissioners may publish, or cause to be published, the name of an individual who is the subject of a determination under subsection (2).

(b) Publication under paragraph (a) may, as appropriate, include the title or category of the work of an individual.

Amendments

Subs (16) inserted by Finance Act 2012 section 132 from 31 March 2012.